Category Archives: Unit 7 Pedagogy, Andragogy and Assessment

Critical Pedagogy

Critical pedagogy is an educational philosophy and approach to teaching that emerged primarily from the works of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire. It is rooted in the belief that education is a political and inherently social act and that teaching and learning should go beyond the mere transmission of knowledge to include a focus on social justice, equity, and critical thinking.

Key Concept related to Critical Pedagogy:

Dialogue and Participation:

Paulo Freire emphasized the importance of dialogue between teachers and students. This dialogical process involves open communication, mutual respect, and active participation, allowing learners to contribute to the construction of knowledge.

Critical Thinking:

Critical pedagogy promotes critical thinking skills. Students are encouraged to question, analyze, and challenge information rather than passively accepting it. This involves examining issues from multiple perspectives and understanding the broader social context.

Social Justice:

It is deeply concerned with issues of social justice. It encourages educators and students to explore and address inequalities, discrimination, and oppression within educational settings and society at large.

Read more on the next page.

Also Read: Critical Thinking

Competency Based Evaluation

Competency-based evaluation is an assessment approach that focuses on measuring an individual’s performance against a set of predetermined competencies or skills. Rather than evaluating general knowledge or qualifications, competency-based evaluations aim to assess specific skills and abilities required for success in a particular role or field.

The criteria for judging the appropriateness of a test items under competency-based evaluation is whether or not it successfully provides a means to evaluate the given competency.

Here are the key features and benefits of competency-based evaluation:
  1. Clear expectations: Competency-based evaluations provide clear guidelines and expectations for performance. They define the specific skills, knowledge, behaviors, and attributes that are necessary for effective job performance.
  2. Objective assessment: By focusing on specific competencies, this evaluation method promotes objectivity in assessing performance. It provides a framework that allows evaluators to objectively measure an individual’s skills and behaviors against predetermined criteria.
  3. Individual development: Competency-based evaluations can be used to identify areas of strength and areas for improvement in an individual’s performance. This information can then be used to create targeted development plans to enhance skills and address any competency gaps.
  4. Alignment with organizational goals: By aligning evaluation criteria with the competencies needed for success within the organization, competency-based evaluations help ensure that individuals are assessed based on the skills and behaviors that directly contribute to achieving organizational objectives.
  5. Performance differentiation: Competency-based evaluations facilitate a more nuanced assessment of performance. By evaluating specific competencies, it becomes easier to differentiate between high performers, average performers, and those who may be struggling in specific areas.
  6. Hiring and promotion decisions: It is use in the selection and promotion processes. By identifying the key competencies required for a role, organizations can assess candidates or employees against these criteria to make informed decisions about hiring or promoting individuals.

Merits of Competency Based Evaluation:

  • It is helpful in determining which of the specific competencies particular child has attained.
  • Listing the competencies which were or were not attained by pupils.
  • Classifying children in terms of masters, partial masters and non-masters with regard to the stated competencies.
  • Evaluating all aspects of a competency through a reasonably large numbers of items or test questions
  • Eliminating chance errors which are likely to influence the results.
  • Devising proper strategies for teaching-learning.

When conducting this, it is important to define the competencies or skills that are relevant to the specific job. These competencies should be observable, measurable, and tied to the goals and objectives of the organization. Evaluators can then use a variety of methods such as observation, self-assessment, interviews, or performance metrics to gather evidence of an individual’s competency levels.

Overall, competency-based evaluations provide a structured and objective approach to assessing performance, promoting individual development, and aligning organizational goals with talent management processes.

Competency Based Evaluation
Competency Based Evaluation

Relation Between Objectives and Outcomes

The relationship between objectives and outcomes is a fundamental aspect of goal setting and achievement. Objectives serve as the desired targets or goals that an individual, organization, or system strives to attain, while outcomes are the actual results or consequences that emerge from the actions taken to achieve those objectives.

Objectives provide a clear direction and purpose for efforts, outlining what is to be accomplished. They are typically specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) to ensure clarity and effectiveness. Objectives help set priorities, focus efforts, and provide a benchmark for success.

Outcomes, on the other hand, are the tangible or measurable changes that occur as a direct result of working towards the objectives. They represent the actual impact or result of the actions taken. Outcomes can be positive or negative and may include various elements such as increased revenue, improved customer satisfaction, enhanced productivity, or reduced environmental impact, depending on the context.

The relationship between objectives and outcomes can be summarized as follows:

  1. Alignment: Objectives and outcomes should be closely aligned. The objectives set the direction and define the desired outcomes, while the outcomes indicate the extent to which the objectives have been achieved. By evaluating outcomes against objectives, it becomes possible to determine if the desired goals have been met.
  2. Evaluation: Outcomes are used to assess the success or effectiveness of efforts undertaken to achieve the objectives. By comparing the actual outcomes with the intended objectives, one can evaluate performance and progress. This evaluation helps identify areas of success, areas that need improvement, and any necessary adjustments to the approach.
  3. Feedback and Adaptation: Outcomes provide feedback on the effectiveness of strategies, tactics, or actions employed to reach the objectives. Positive outcomes can reinforce the chosen approach, while negative outcomes may indicate the need for changes in plans, strategies, or methods. This feedback loop allows for continuous learning and adaptation throughout the process.
  4. Accountability and Measurement: Objectives and outcomes provide a basis for accountability and measurement. Objectives set clear expectations and provide a standard against which outcomes are evaluated. By measuring outcomes, it becomes possible to determine if the objectives have been met and to what extent.

In summary, objectives and outcomes are interconnected. Objectives provide a clear direction and purpose, while outcomes reflect the actual results and impact of actions taken. Evaluating outcomes against objectives helps assess performance, provide feedback, and guide future efforts towards achieving desired goals.

Also Read : Types of Evaluation

Relationship between objectives and Outcomes

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Types of Evaluation

Evaluation is the process of assessing or measuring the effectiveness, impact, or value of something, such as a program, project, product, or service. There are many types of Evaluation method. It involves collecting and analyzing data to determine whether the goals and objectives of the thing being evaluated have been achieved, and to identify strengths and weaknesses in the implementation.

Here are more details about the three types of evaluation:

  1. Formative Evaluation: It is a type of evaluation that is conducted during the development and implementation of a program or project. Its purpose is to assess progress and identify areas for improvement. It involves ongoing feedback and monitoring to ensure that the program is on track to meet its goals. It can be used to identify strengths and weaknesses in a program, to assess the quality of the program’s implementation, and to make adjustments to the program to ensure its success. This type of evaluation is usually qualitative and can involve surveys, interviews, and focus groups.
  2. Diagnostic Evaluation: Diagnostic evaluation is used to identify the root cause of a problem or issue. It is used to determine why a program is not working as intended and what changes need to be made to improve its effectiveness. Diagnostic evaluation involves collecting data on the problem or issue, analyzing the data, and making recommendations for improvement. This type of evaluation is usually qualitative and can involve surveys, interviews, and focus groups.
  3. Summative Evaluation: It is a type of evaluation that is conducted at the end of a program or project to measure its overall impact and effectiveness. Its purpose is to determine whether the program achieved its goals and objectives. It involves collecting data on the outcomes of the program, analyzing the data, and making conclusions about the program’s success or failure. This type of evaluation is usually quantitative and can involve surveys, tests, and other standardized assessments.

Also Read : Socio Metric Technique

Types of Evaluation

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Herbartian Model of Memory level of Teaching

The Herbartian model of memory level of teaching does not explicitly address the concepts of Focus, Syntax, and Social System Support System. However, it does emphasize the importance of a supportive learning environment and the role of the teacher in facilitating learning.


The Herbartian model emphasizes on the development of the mental abilities of the learner. The importance of organizing and presenting new information in a clear and organized manner, using examples and illustrations to aid understanding. It also include cramming of facts along with training of mental aspects. This helps to ensure that students can retain the facts and concepts.


In Herbart’s model, the process of teaching involves five steps: preparation, presentation, association, generalization, and application. These steps are designed to help students develop their powers of observation, memory, and reasoning.

The first step, preparation, involves getting students ready for learning by introducing the topic and establishing its relevance to their interests and prior knowledge. The second step, presentation, involves presenting the new information in a clear and organized manner, using examples and illustrations to aid understanding.

The third step, association, involves linking the new information to what the students already know, making connections between ideas and concepts. The fourth step, generalization, involves drawing out general principles and concepts from the specific information presented.

The final step, application, involves applying the new knowledge to real-life situations, and reflecting on the learning process.

Social system

The Herbartian model emphasizes the role of the teacher in classroom. Here the role of teacher is secondary and role of student is primary.

Support Learning

In support learning, all instructional aids adapted during teaching comes in support system.

Also Read : Intervention Model of Curriculum

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