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Formation of Plan of Action: Long-Term and Short-Term

Formulating a comprehensive Plan of Action involves addressing both short-term and long-term objectives in policy development.

Here’s a guide on how to structure such a plan:

Short-term Plan of Action :

Assessment and Analysis:

  • Identify Immediate Needs: Conduct a rapid assessment to identify current issues or challenges that require urgent attention.
  • Stakeholder Analysis: Identify key stakeholders and their interests in the short term.

Policy Prioritization:

  • Identify Quick Wins: Determine policy measures that can deliver immediate, visible results.
  • Focus on High-Impact Areas: Prioritize policies that address critical issues with the potential for quick positive outcomes.

Resource Allocation:

  • Allocate Short-Term Resources: Allocate resources to initiatives with immediate impact.
  • Identify Funding Sources: Secure short-term funding to support urgent policy actions.

Communication and Outreach:

  • Develop a Communication Strategy: Clearly communicate short-term policy goals and actions to the public and stakeholders.
  • Engage Stakeholders: Foster collaboration and partnerships to implement short-term policies effectively.

Long-term Plan of Action

Vision and Goals:

  • Define Long-Term Vision: Clearly define the desired future state and goals for the policy area.
  • Establish Metrics: Develop measurable indicators to track progress towards long-term goals.

Policy Development and Research:

  • Conduct Comprehensive Research: Gather data and conduct in-depth analysis to inform evidence-based long-term policy development.
  • Engage Experts: Consult with subject matter experts and stakeholders to enhance the depth and quality of policy proposals.

Capacity Building:

  • Develop Institutional Capacity: Strengthen organizational and institutional capacities to effectively implement and manage long-term policies.
  • Invest in Human Resources: Train and build the expertise of personnel to handle the complexities of long-term policy implementation.

Public Engagement:

  • Public Consultations: Facilitate public input and participation in the policy development process.
  • Public Awareness Campaigns: Implement campaigns to inform the public about the long-term vision and benefits of the proposed policies.

Monitoring and Evaluation:

  • Establish Monitoring Systems: Develop systems for tracking and monitoring the implementation of long-term policies.
  • Evaluation Framework: Implement periodic evaluations to assess the impact and effectiveness of long-term policies.

International Collaboration:

  • Engage in Partnerships: Foster collaborations with international entities and neighboring countries to address global or regional challenges.
  • Share Best Practices: Learn from and share best practices with other nations facing similar long-term policy issues.

Also Read: Forecasting Manpower Need

Formation of Plan of Action

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Process of Policy Formation

The process of policy formulation involves several stages, including policy research, the creation of discussion documents, consultations, the constitution of working groups, and the presentation of draft documents in relevant bodies like the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) and Parliament.

Let’s Discuss the Process of Policy Formation in Detail :

Policy Research

  • Identification of Issues: The process begins with identifying the issues that need to be addressed through policy. This may involve research, analysis of existing data, and the identification of gaps or challenges in the current system.
  • Data Collection and Analysis: The data is collected and analyzed to understand the scope and impact of the issues. This may involve quantitative and qualitative research methods.
  • Review of Best Practices: Policymakers often review best practices from other regions or countries to gain insights into effective approaches to similar issues.

Discussion Document :

  • Drafting a Discussion Document: Based on the research findings, a discussion document is drafted. This document outlines the issues, presents the research findings, and proposes potential policy options. It serves as a starting point for further discussions.
  • Internal Review: The discussion document is typically reviewed internally within the policymaking body or government department to ensure clarity and alignment with broader government goals.


  • Stakeholder Consultations: Policymakers engage in consultations with relevant stakeholders, including experts, community members, non-governmental organizations, and affected parties. This helps in gathering diverse perspectives and input.
  • Public Consultations: Depending on the nature of the policy, there may be public consultations to ensure that the policy reflects the needs and concerns of the broader population.

Constitution of Working Groups:

  • Formation of Working Groups: Based on the feedback received during consultations, working groups may be formed to go deeper into specific aspects of the policy. These groups typically consist of experts and representatives from relevant sectors.
  • In-Depth Analysis: Working groups analyze the policy in detail, considering different scenarios, potential challenges, and alternative solutions. They may also conduct additional research to inform their recommendations.

Presentation of Draft Document in CABE:

  • Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE): In the context of education policy, CABE is a crucial body for discussions and approvals. The draft policy document is presented to CABE for review and feedback.
  • Feedback and Revision: CABE members provide feedback, and the draft may undergo revisions based on the discussions. This iterative process ensures that the policy aligns with the broader education goals and receives input from key stakeholders.

Presentation of Parliament

  • Cabinet Approval: After CABE review and revisions, the draft policy is presented to the Cabinet for approval. The Cabinet, comprising senior government ministers, considers the policy’s implications, feasibility, and alignment with overall government priorities.
  • Parliamentary Debate and Approval: Once approved by the Cabinet, the policy is presented to the Parliament for debate and approval. Members of Parliament discuss the policy, ask questions, and vote on its adoption.

Implementation and Monitoring:

  • Implementation Plan: After parliamentary approval, an implementation plan is developed. This plan outlines the steps, timelines, and responsibilities for putting the policy into practice.
  • Monitoring and Evaluation: Ongoing monitoring and evaluation are established to assess the policy’s effectiveness. This may involve regular reviews, data collection, and adjustments based on feedback and changing circumstances.

Also Read: Need of Educational Planning

Process of Educational Policy Planning

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Teacher Role as Curriculum Practitioner

The role of a teacher as a curriculum practitioner is important in shaping the educational experience of students. The term “curriculum practitioner” refers to someone who is actively engaged in the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of educational curriculum.

Here are some roles played by teachers as curriculum practitioners:

Curriculum Design

  • Identifying Educational Goals: Teachers play a key role in identifying the educational goals and objectives that students should achieve. They need to have a clear understanding of the desired learning outcomes.
  • Selecting Content: Teachers decide what content is essential for students to learn. They choose topics, themes, and subject matter that align with the curriculum standards and objectives.

Curriculum Development

  • Creating Learning Materials: Teachers mostly create or adapt learning materials such as lesson plans, handouts, and multimedia resources to support the curriculum.
  • Differentiation: Teachers understand the diverse needs and learning styles of their students when developing the curriculum. They may apply differentiated instruction strategies to accommodate various learners.

Curriculum Implementation:

  • Classroom Instruction: Teachers are responsible for delivering the curriculum in the classroom. This involves using effective teaching methods, strategies, and techniques to engage students and facilitate learning.
  • Adaptation: Teachers may need to adapt the curriculum based on the specific needs of their class. Flexibility is important to accommodate various learners.

Assessment and Evaluation:

  • Designing Assessments: Teachers develop various forms of assessments, including tests, quizzes, projects, and presentations, to evaluate student understanding and mastery of the curriculum.
  • Feedback: Teachers provide timely and constructive feedback to students based on their assessments. This feedback informs both the teacher and the students about progress and areas for improvement.

Reflective Practice:

Continuous Improvement: Teachers engage in reflective practice to assess the effectiveness of the curriculum and instructional methods. They continuously seek ways to improve their teaching practices based on ongoing reflection and feedback.


  • Working with Colleagues: Teachers collaborate with other educators, curriculum specialists, and administrators to ensure consistency and alignment across grade levels and subjects.
  • Professional Development: Staying updated on educational trends and participating in professional development activities helps teachers enhance their curriculum development skills.

Also Read: Core Curriculum

Teacher Role as Curriculum Practitioner

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Research Process in Educational Research

  1. Identifying a Research Question: The research process typically begins with the identification of a specific research question or problem that the researcher wants to investigate. This question should be relevant, clear, and researchable.
  2. Literature Review: Researchers review existing literature to gain a deep understanding of the topic, identify gaps in knowledge, and establish the theoretical framework for their study.
  3. Research Design: Researchers choose the research design, which can be qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods, depending on the research question and goals.
  4. Data Collection: Data is gathered through methods such as surveys, interviews, observations, experiments, or document analysis. Researchers must ensure data collection is ethical and rigorous.
  5. Data Analysis: Data is analyzed using appropriate statistical or qualitative analysis techniques. The results are used to answer the research question and test hypotheses.
  6. Interpretation and Discussion: Researchers interpret the findings in the context of the existing literature and discuss their implications for theory, practice, or policy.
  7. Conclusion and Recommendations: Researchers conclude the study by summarizing the main findings and offering recommendations for future research or educational practice.
  8. Publication and Dissemination: The research is often disseminated through academic journals, conferences, or policy reports, contributing to the body of knowledge in the field of education.

Throughout the research process, ethical considerations, such as obtaining informed consent and protecting participant confidentiality, are paramount in educational research. Researchers should also consider the practical applications of their findings to improve educational practices and outcomes.

Also Read: Research Paradigm

Research Process in Education

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Areas of Educational Research

Educational research is a diverse field that encompasses a wide range of topics and areas of study. Researchers in the field of education investigate various aspects of teaching, learning, and educational systems to improve education outcomes and inform policy and practice.

Here are some common areas of educational research and an overview of the research process:

Areas of Educational Research:

  1. Teaching and Learning: Research in this area focuses on instructional methods, curriculum development, and factors that influence student learning, such as teacher-student relationships and classroom dynamics.
  2. Educational Technology: This area explores the integration of technology into education, the effectiveness of e-learning platforms, and the impact of digital tools on teaching and learning.
  3. Educational Psychology: Researchers in this field study cognitive and social development, motivation, and factors affecting student behavior and performance.
  4. Special Education: Special education research examines the needs of students with disabilities, strategies for inclusion, and the effectiveness of interventions and accommodations.
  5. Assessment and Evaluation: This area focuses on the development of standardized tests, assessment methods, and the use of assessment data to improve instruction and student outcomes.
  6. Educational Policy: Researchers study the impact of educational policies, school reform, and funding on educational outcomes and equity.
  7. Teacher Education and Professional Development: This area explores the preparation of teachers, ongoing professional development, and the impact of teacher training on student achievement.
  8. Higher Education: Research in higher education investigates college and university policies, student success, access to higher education, and faculty research and teaching.
  9. Language and Literacy: Researchers examine language development, literacy acquisition, and strategies to improve reading and writing skills.
  10. Sociocultural and Multicultural Education: This area explores issues related to diversity, equity, and inclusion in education, including cultural competence and the experiences of marginalized groups.

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Areas of Educational Research

Also Read: Scope of Educational Research