ORID Model

The ORID Model of Learning is an adaptation of the ORID (Objective, Reflective, Interpretive, Decisional) model, specifically tailored to the learning process. It provides a structured framework for educators and facilitators to guide learners through a complete and elaborate learning experience.

Each stage of the ORID Model of Learning corresponds to a different aspect of the learning process:

Objective: In the Objective stage, learners are introduced to the topic or subject matter. This stage is focused on gathering facts, information, and establishing a basic understanding of the topic. Educators typically present the learning objectives, provide relevant background information, and introduce key concepts. Learners are encouraged to ask questions related to the “what,” “where,” “when,” and “who” of the topic to gain a solid foundation.

Reflective: The Reflective stage encourages learners to connect personally with the material. Here, they are invited to reflect on their own experiences, beliefs, and feelings related to the topic. This stage helps learners make connections between the new information and their existing knowledge and experiences. Educators may facilitate discussions, journaling, or other reflective activities to help learners explore their thoughts and feelings.

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Role of Students in Experiential Learning

In experiential learning, students play a central and active role in their own learning process. Unlike traditional passive learning approaches where students primarily receive information from instructors, in experiential learning, students engage in hands-on experiences that foster critical thinking, problem-solving skills, and a deeper understanding of the subject matter. The role of students in experiential learning is very important.

Here’s a breakdown of the role of students in experiential learning:

Active Participation: Students actively engage in learning activities, whether they involve experiments, simulations, fieldwork, projects, or other experiential exercises. They take part in the process rather than being passive recipients of information.

Reflection: After participating in an experience, students reflect on what they have learned, what went well, what could be improved, and how the experience connects to their existing knowledge and understanding. Reflection helps deepen learning and promotes metacognition.

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Role of Teacher in Experiential Learning

Experiential learning is a student-centered approach that emphasizes hands-on, active engagement in the learning process. In this approach, both teachers and students play distinct roles that contribute to the effectiveness of the learning experience.

Here’s how teachers engage in experiential learning:

Teacher’s Role:

a. Facilitator: The teacher serves as a facilitator or guide rather than a lecturer. They create opportunities for students to engage directly with the subject matter through activities, experiments, or real-world experiences.

b. Designing Learning Experiences: Teachers design and organize learning experiences that promote active participation, critical thinking, and reflection. They plan activities that allow students to explore concepts, solve problems, and draw conclusions through firsthand experiences.

c. Providing Structure and Support: While encouraging student autonomy and initiative, teachers also provide structure and support to ensure that the learning activities align with educational objectives. They offer guidance, feedback, and resources to help students navigate the learning process effectively.

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d. Encouraging Reflection: Teachers facilitate reflection activities that enable students to analyze their experiences, identify key insights, and connect new knowledge with prior learning. They encourage students to think deeply about their experiences and articulate their thoughts and feelings.

e. Assessment and Evaluation: Teachers assess student learning through various means, including observations, discussions, presentations, projects, and portfolios. They evaluate not only the acquisition of knowledge and skills but also the application of learning in practical contexts.

Also, Read: Features of Experiential Learning

Role of Teacher in Experiential Learning
Role of Teacher in Experiential Learning

Experiential Education

Experiential education is a hands-on learning approach that emphasizes learning through direct experience. Instead of traditional lecture-based instruction, experiential education encourages students to actively engage with the material through activities, experiments, projects, and real-world experiences.

Key principles of experiential education include:

Learning by doing: Students learn best when they actively participate in activities rather than passively receiving information.

Reflection: After engaging in an experience, students reflect on what they learned, how they felt, and how they can apply their new knowledge or skills.

Real-world relevance: It often connects classroom learning to real-world contexts, helping students see the practical applications of what they’re learning.

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Difference between Needs and Drives

In the context of motivation, “need” and “drive” are related concepts but have distinct meanings:


  • Needs are inherent psychological states that represent a lack or deficiency within an individual.
  • These needs can be physiological (e.g., hunger, thirst, sleep), psychological (e.g., need for achievement, affiliation, autonomy), or social (e.g., need for belongingness, acceptance).
  • Needs serve as the underlying motivators that make individuals take action to satisfy them. It also restores a state of equilibrium or fulfillment.
  • According to prominent theories such as Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, human needs are organized hierarchically, with basic physiological needs forming the foundation and higher-level needs such as self-actualization emerging once lower-level needs are met.

Also Read : Emotional Intelligence (Ability Model)


  • Drives are the psychological forces or states of arousal that arise from unsatisfied needs.
  • Drives prompt individuals to engage in behaviors aimed at reducing or alleviating the tension caused by unmet needs.
  • Drives are often associated with physiological needs, such as hunger or thirst, but can also stem from psychological or social needs.
  • The intensity of a drive typically corresponds to the urgency or importance of the underlying need.
  • Drive theory, proposed by Clark Hull and others, tells that motivation is primarily driven by biological needs. Also, that behavior is aimed at reducing physiological arousal or achieving homeostasis.

In summary, needs represent the underlying deficiencies or states of lack within an individual, while drives are the psychological forces that emerge from unsatisfied needs and propel individuals to take action to fulfill those needs.

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Difference between Need and Drives

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