Tag Archives: b ed second year

Library as a Resource in English

Libraries play a crucial role in the teaching and learning of English as a second or foreign language.

Here are some ways in which libraries can serve as valuable resources:

Access to a Wide Range of Materials: Libraries provide access to a diverse array of English language materials including books, magazines, newspapers, journals, audiovisual resources, and digital content. This variety exposes learners to different writing styles, genres, and topics, helping them develop a well-rounded understanding of the language.

Support for Language Acquisition: Libraries often offer resources specifically designed for language learners, such as graded readers, language learning software, bilingual dictionaries, and grammar guides. These resources cater to learners at different proficiency levels, allowing them to progress at their own pace.

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Also Read: Language Laboratory

ORID Model

The ORID Model of Learning is an adaptation of the ORID (Objective, Reflective, Interpretive, Decisional) model, specifically tailored to the learning process. It provides a structured framework for educators and facilitators to guide learners through a complete and elaborate learning experience.

Each stage of the ORID Model of Learning corresponds to a different aspect of the learning process:

Objective: In the Objective stage, learners are introduced to the topic or subject matter. This stage is focused on gathering facts, information, and establishing a basic understanding of the topic. Educators typically present the learning objectives, provide relevant background information, and introduce key concepts. Learners are encouraged to ask questions related to the “what,” “where,” “when,” and “who” of the topic to gain a solid foundation.

Reflective: The Reflective stage encourages learners to connect personally with the material. Here, they are invited to reflect on their own experiences, beliefs, and feelings related to the topic. This stage helps learners make connections between the new information and their existing knowledge and experiences. Educators may facilitate discussions, journaling, or other reflective activities to help learners explore their thoughts and feelings.

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Assumptions about human nature

Philosophers have proposed various assumptions and perspectives on human nature throughout history. These assumptions often shape philosophical theories and ethical frameworks.

Let’s discuss some assumptions about human nature in philosophy:

Rationality (Plato and Aristotle):

Plato and Aristotle, among others, assumed that humans are rational beings capable of reasoning and understanding the world. This assumption forms the basis for much of classical philosophy, emphasizing the importance of cultivating reason and intellect.

Social Nature (Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau):

Hobbes and Rousseau had contrasting views on human nature. Hobbes assumed that humans are inherently selfish and driven by a desire for self-preservation. He famously described the natural state of humanity as “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short,” advocating for a social contract to maintain order. In contrast, Rousseau assumed that humans are naturally good but corrupted by society. He believed that in their natural state, people were peaceful and cooperative.

Also Read: Relationship of Education and Philosophy

Existentialist View (Jean-Paul Sartre):

Existentialist philosophers like Sartre assumed that human nature is characterized by radical freedom and responsibility. Sartre famously declared that “existence precedes essence,” suggesting that individuals define themselves through their choices and actions.

Tabula Rasa (John Locke):

John Locke’s assumption of the “tabula rasa” (blank slate) posits that humans are born with minds like a blank slate, and knowledge is acquired through experience and sensory perception. This assumption has implications for understanding the role of education and environmental influences in shaping individuals.

Dualism (Descartes):

René Descartes assumed a mind-body dualism, separating the mind and body into distinct substances. He believed that the mind (or soul) was immaterial and distinct from the physical body. This assumption has had a significant impact on philosophy of mind discussions.

Hedonism (Epicurus):

Epicurus assumed that humans are naturally inclined toward seeking pleasure and avoiding pain. His philosophy, known as Epicureanism, advocated for a simple and modest life focused on the pursuit of pleasure, particularly intellectual and emotional well-being.

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Assumptions about Human Nature
Assumptions about Human Nature

Digital storytelling and Story Boarding

Digital Storytelling:

Digital storytelling is the use of digital tools and technologies to create and share narratives. It goes beyond traditional storytelling by incorporating multimedia elements such as images, audio, video, and interactive elements.

  1. Multimedia Elements:
    • Digital stories often combine various media elements like images, audio, video clips, music, and text. This multimedia approach enhances the storytelling experience and engages multiple senses.
  2. Interactive Features:
    • Digital storytelling may include interactive features. This can include clickable links, buttons, or other interactive elements that enable the viewer to choose different paths within the narrative.
  3. Audience Engagement:
    • Digital storytelling encourages active engagement from the audience. Viewers can interact with the story, providing a more personalized experience.
  4. Accessibility:
    • Digital stories can be easily shared and accessed online, reaching a broader audience. They can be shared on websites, social media platforms, or through other digital channels.
  5. Educational Applications:
    • Digital storytelling is widely used in education to enhance learning experiences. It allows students to express themselves creatively, develop digital literacy skills, and communicate complex ideas in a compelling way.
  6. Tools and Platforms:
    • Various tools and platforms, such as digital storytelling apps, video editing software, and online platforms, make it accessible for individuals with varying levels of technical expertise to create digital stories.


Storyboarding is a visual planning tool used in the pre-production phase of various creative projects, including digital storytelling, film, animation, and video production. It involves creating a sequence of illustrations or images to outline the key scenes or events in a narrative.

  1. Visual Planning:
    • Storyboards visually represent the flow of a story or project. They provide a blueprint for the narrative, helping creators plan the sequence of events, camera angles, and visual elements.
  2. Communication Tool:
    • Storyboards serve as a communication tool among team members. They help convey the director’s vision, ensuring a shared understanding of the narrative and visual elements.
  3. Timing and Pacing:
    • By organizing scenes and events in a sequential manner, storyboarding helps creators determine the timing and pacing of the story. This is crucial for maintaining an engaging narrative.
  4. Feedback and Iteration:
    • Storyboards allow for early feedback and revisions. Team members and stakeholders can review the visual representation of the story and provide input before the actual production begins.
  5. Cost and Resource Planning:
    • Storyboarding aids in resource planning by providing a visual breakdown of scenes. It helps estimate the resources, time, and budget required for each part of the project.
  6. Transition to Production:
    • Once the storyboard is finalized, it serves as a guide during the production phase. It helps in the filming or creation process by providing a clear roadmap for the entire team.

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Also Read: UDISE

Academic Discipline and School Subjects: Differences and Relationship

Academic discipline and school subjects are related concepts in education, but they have distinct meanings and functions. Understanding their differences and relationships is essential for educators, students, and those involved in curriculum development.

Let’s try to understand it in a better way :

Academic Discipline

An academic discipline refers to a branch of knowledge that is studied at the higher education level, typically in universities and colleges. It includes a specific field of study, often characterized by theories, methodologies, and research practices.

Examples: Physics, sociology, biology, philosophy, psychology, and economics are examples of academic disciplines.

School Subjects

School subjects refer to the specific topics or areas of study taught at the primary and secondary school levels. These subjects are part of the broader curriculum designed to provide a well-rounded education to students.

Examples: Mathematics, English, science, history, geography, and physical education are examples of school subjects.


  • Academic disciplines are typically studied at the higher education level, while school subjects are taught at the primary and secondary school levels.
  • Academic disciplines often involve a higher degree of specialization and depth of knowledge, focusing on advanced theories and research. School subjects are more generalized and aim to provide a broad foundation in various areas of knowledge.
  • Academic disciplines are designed to prepare students for in-depth exploration and research within a specific field. School subjects, on the other hand, aim to provide a well-rounded education and develop a range of skills and knowledge applicable to various aspects of life.


  • School subjects lay the groundwork for the development of academic disciplines. For example, elementary and high school science classes introduce students to the basics of biology, chemistry, and physics, setting the stage for more specialized study in these disciplines at the university level.
  • School subjects offer huge knowledge, exposing students to various disciplines. As students progress in their education, they may choose to go deeper into specific academic disciplines based on their interests and career goals.
  • The curriculum at the school level is often designed to align with broader academic disciplines. For instance, the study of history as a school subject may align with the academic discipline of history at the higher education level.

Also Read: Need and Importance of School Subjects

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