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Equitable Uses of Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods

Equitable resource use for sustainable living refers to the fair and just distribution and management of resources so that current and future generations can meet their needs without risking the ability of others or the environment to do so.

Equitable uses of resources for sustainable livelihoods. Here are several major aspects:

  • Fair Distribution: Resources should be distributed such that all individuals and communities have access to basic necessities of life, such as food, water, housing, healthcare, and education.
  • Social Justice: Equitable resource usage requires tackling social inequities and injustices so that marginalized groups, such as women, indigenous peoples, minorities, and those in need, have equal access to resources and opportunities for livelihood development.
  • Environmental Sustainability: Resources must be managed in a way that maintains or enhances the health and resilience of ecosystems, ensuring that natural resources are not depleted faster than they can be replenished and that ecosystems are not degraded beyond repair.
  • Community Participation and Empowerment: Decision-making processes related to resource use should be inclusive and participatory, involving all relevant stakeholders, particularly those whose lives and livelihoods are directly affected. Communities should be empowered to manage and benefit from local resources sustainably.
  • Education and Capacity Building: Equitable resource use means investing in education, training, and capacity building initiatives to enhance people’s knowledge and skills for sustainable resource management and livelihood development.
  • Policy and Governance: Effective policies and governance systems are crucial for accomplishing equitable resource utilization. It contains regulations that prohibit exploitation and promote sustainable practices, as well as enforcement systems that hold violators accountable.

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Equitable uses of resources for sustainable livelihoods

Also Read: Health Education

Curriculum Development Model by Franklin Bobbit

Franklin Bobbitt was an influential figure in the field of curriculum development during the early 20th century. He is best known for his “Scientific Curriculum Making” approach, which focuses on the application of scientific principles to curriculum design. Bobbitt believed that curriculum should be based on clear objectives and should be developed systematically.

Curriculum development model by Franklin Bobbit can be summarized in a few key principles:

Identification of Objectives: Bobbitt stressed the importance of clearly stating the educational objectives that the curriculum aims to achieve. These objectives should be specific, measurable, and aligned with broader educational goals.

Analysis of Needs: Before developing a curriculum, Bobbitt focused on conducting a thorough analysis of the needs of learners. Also, focuses on the societal and cultural context in which the curriculum will be implemented. This analysis helps to ensure that the curriculum is relevant and according to the needs of its stakeholders.

Also Read: Core Curriculum

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Difference between Needs and Drives

In the context of motivation, “need” and “drive” are related concepts but have distinct meanings:


  • Needs are inherent psychological states that represent a lack or deficiency within an individual.
  • These needs can be physiological (e.g., hunger, thirst, sleep), psychological (e.g., need for achievement, affiliation, autonomy), or social (e.g., need for belongingness, acceptance).
  • Needs serve as the underlying motivators that make individuals take action to satisfy them. It also restores a state of equilibrium or fulfillment.
  • According to prominent theories such as Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, human needs are organized hierarchically, with basic physiological needs forming the foundation and higher-level needs such as self-actualization emerging once lower-level needs are met.

Also Read : Emotional Intelligence (Ability Model)


  • Drives are the psychological forces or states of arousal that arise from unsatisfied needs.
  • Drives prompt individuals to engage in behaviors aimed at reducing or alleviating the tension caused by unmet needs.
  • Drives are often associated with physiological needs, such as hunger or thirst, but can also stem from psychological or social needs.
  • The intensity of a drive typically corresponds to the urgency or importance of the underlying need.
  • Drive theory, proposed by Clark Hull and others, tells that motivation is primarily driven by biological needs. Also, that behavior is aimed at reducing physiological arousal or achieving homeostasis.

In summary, needs represent the underlying deficiencies or states of lack within an individual, while drives are the psychological forces that emerge from unsatisfied needs and propel individuals to take action to fulfill those needs.

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Difference between Need and Drives

Concept and Features of Experiential Learning

Experiential learning is an educational approach that emphasizes hands-on, active engagement with learning materials and concepts. It involves learning through direct experience, reflection, and application. This approach contrasts with traditional forms of learning that often rely heavily on lectures, readings, and passive absorption of information.

Experiential learning is based on the philosophy that learners acquire knowledge more effectively when they actively participate in the learning process and make connections between theory and practice.

Concept and Features of Experiential Learning:

Active engagement: Learners actively engage with the subject matter through hands-on activities, experiments, projects, or simulations. This active involvement promotes deeper understanding and retention of knowledge.

Reflection: After engaging in a learning experience, learners are encouraged to reflect on their observations, thoughts, and feelings. Reflection helps learners make sense of their experiences, identify patterns, and extract meaningful insights.

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Guilford’s Factor Analytical Theory

J.P. Guilford was a psychologist known for his extensive work on intelligence and creativity. Guilford’s factor analytical theory, proposed in the mid-20th century, aimed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of human intelligence by breaking it down into multiple components. Unlike Spearman’s two-factor theory, Guilford proposed a model with multiple factors.

Guilford’s factor analytical theory consists of three main components:


Guilford identified five types of mental operations or cognitive abilities:

  • Cognition (perception, memory, convergent and divergent production)
  • Memory (recognition, recall)
  • Divergent Production (ideational fluency, ideational flexibility, originality)
  • Convergent Production (cognition similar to convergent production, but it involves finding the single correct solution)
  • Evaluation (evaluation of statements, facts, or problems)

Also Read: Glaser Basic Teaching Model