Category Archives: Curriculum Planning and Development

Curriculum as Program

Curriculum as Program (CAP) is an educational framework that emphasizes the design and organization of a curriculum as a structured and cohesive program. It is an approach that views curriculum development as a systematic process of planning, implementing, and evaluating educational programs.

In the CAP model, a curriculum is seen as a comprehensive program rather than a collection of isolated courses or subjects. It takes into consideration the learning objectives, content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods to create a coherent and integrated educational experience for students.

Here are some key components and principles associated with the Curriculum as Program approach:

  1. Goals and Objectives: CAP begins with clearly defined educational goals and objectives. These goals reflect the desired learning outcomes and provide a framework for curriculum development.
  2. Alignment: CAP emphasizes aligning the curriculum with the stated goals and objectives, as well as with the needs and expectations of the learners. The curriculum content and instructional strategies are carefully selected to ensure coherence and relevance.
  3. Sequencing and Progression: CAP considers the logical sequencing and progression of learning experiences. It focuses on structuring the curriculum in a way that enables students to build upon their knowledge and skills incrementally.
  4. Integration: CAP promotes the integration of various subject areas and disciplines to create meaningful connections and promote interdisciplinary learning. It seeks to break down the traditional compartmentalization of knowledge and encourages students to see the interrelatedness of different topics.
  5. Active Learning: CAP encourages active student engagement and participation in the learning process. It emphasizes learner-centered instructional approaches, such as problem-solving, project-based learning, and collaborative activities.
  6. Assessment and Evaluation: CAP incorporates ongoing assessment and evaluation strategies to measure student progress and provide feedback for improvement. It focuses on both formative and summative assessments aligned with the curriculum goals.
  7. Continuous Improvement: CAP recognizes the need for continuous evaluation and improvement of the curriculum. It involves gathering feedback from various stakeholders, including students, teachers, and administrators, to make necessary adjustments and enhancements.

By adopting the Curriculum as Program approach, educational institutions aim to create a well-designed, coherent, and purposeful curriculum that supports student learning and achievement. It encourages educators to view the curriculum as a dynamic and evolving program that adapts to the changing needs and demands of the learners and the society.

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Curriculum as Program

Also Read : Curriculum as Product

Factors Influencing Curriculum Change

There are various factors that can influence curriculum change, including:

  1. Societal Changes: Changes in society’s values, beliefs, and expectations can prompt curriculum changes. For example, the increasing importance of technology in our daily lives has led to a greater emphasis on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education in school curriculums.
  2. Technological Advances: Advancements in technology can also influence curriculum changes. For example, the widespread availability of digital learning tools and online resources has led to a greater focus on blended learning and personalized instruction.
  3. Globalization: The increasing interconnectedness of the world has led to a greater emphasis on global education and cultural competency in school curriculums.
  4. Economic Factors: Economic factors such as changes in job markets, workforce needs, and funding can also impact curriculum changes. For example, a shift towards more service-oriented jobs may prompt a greater emphasis on vocational training in schools.
  5. Research and Development: Advances in educational research and development can also influence curriculum changes. For example, new research on how students learn and retain information may lead to changes in teaching methods and curriculum design.
  6. Political Factors: Political factors such as changes in education policy and government funding can also impact curriculum changes. For example, changes in government leadership or policies may result in changes to education funding or mandates for certain subject areas.
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Overall, curriculum change is a complex process that is influenced by a variety of factors. Sometimes, the factor influencing curriculum change are many. Multiple stakeholders, including educators, policymakers, and community members, work together to create a curriculum that meets the needs of students and prepares them for the future.

Also read: Curriculum Development

Hilda Taba Model

Hilda Taba (1902-1967) was an Estonian-American educator and curriculum theorist who is best known for her development of a teaching model called the “Taba Model”.

Features and Steps of the Taba Model:

The Taba Model is a curriculum development model that emphasizes a cyclical process of curriculum development. It is based on student learning needs and experiences.

The Taba Model consists of the following steps:

  1. Diagnosis of learner needs: This step involves identifying the learning needs, interests, and experiences of the students.
  2. Formulation of objectives: Based on the diagnosis, objectives are formulated that are specific, measurable, and achievable.
  3. Selection of content: The next step involves selecting content that is relevant to the objectives and the learning needs of the students.
  4. Organization of content: The selected content is organized into a meaningful and logical sequence.
  5. Selection of learning experiences: This step involves selecting appropriate learning experiences that will enable students to achieve the objectives.
  6. Organization of learning experiences: The selected learning experiences are organized into a sequence that help students to achieve the objectives.
  7. Evaluation: The final step involves evaluating the effectiveness of the curriculum in achieving the objectives.

Features of Hilda Taba Model :

  1. Focus on learner-centeredness: The Taba Model places a strong emphasis on the learner and their individual needs and interests. The curriculum is relevant and meaningful to the students, and it takes into account their prior knowledge and experiences.
  2. Spiral approach: The Taba Model uses a spiral approach, where the curriculum is organized around key concepts and ideas that are revisited and deepened over time. This allows students to build on their prior knowledge and make connections between different topics and subjects.
  3. Critical thinking: This emphasizes the development of critical thinking skills, encouraging students to question, analyze, and evaluate information and ideas.
  4. Interdisciplinary approach: The Taba Model encourages an interdisciplinary approach to learning, where students can explore connections between different subjects and topics.
  5. Collaborative learning: The Taba Model promotes collaborative learning, where students work together in groups to explore and solve problems. This helps to develop communication and teamwork skills, as well as foster a sense of community and shared responsibility.
  6. Flexibility: The Taba Model is designed to be flexible, allowing teachers to adapt the curriculum to meet the needs and interests of their students. So curriculum can be adjusted to accommodate changes in the classroom or new developments in the subject area.
Also Read: Foundation of Curriculum

The Taba Model emphasizes the importance of considering the needs and experiences of the students in the curriculum development process. It is a flexible and adaptable model that can be used in a variety of educational settings.

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Problem Centered Design of Curriculum

Problem-centered design of curriculum is an educational approach that focuses on addressing real-world problems and challenges as the center of the learning experience. This design is focused on students and help in solving problems that are relevant to lives of student and that connect to their personal interests and future goals. The curriculum is designed to be relevant, engaging, and meaningful, and it provides opportunities for students to use their knowledge and skills to tackle real-world problems. The teacher not act as a leader but as a facilitator and provides support, guidance, and feedback as students so they can work through the problem-solving process. This approach is believed to lead to deeper and meaningful learning and increased motivation and engagement for students, as they are able to learn the practical applications of what they are learning.

The main features of a problem-centered design of curriculum include:

  1. Relevance: The curriculum is designed to address real-world problems that are relevant to students’ lives and interests.
  2. Problem-solving: Students are actively engaged in solving problems, using their knowledge and skills to develop solutions.
  3. Authenticity: The problems addressed in the curriculum are genuine and reflect the challenges faced in real life.
  4. Collaboration: Students work together to solve problems, encouraging teamwork, communication, and problem-solving skills.
  5. Active engagement: The curriculum provides opportunities for hands-on, experiential learning that keeps students engaged and motivated.
  6. Integration of content areas: The curriculum integrates multiple content areas, allowing students to see the interconnectedness of different subjects.
  7. Real-world applications: The curriculum provides opportunities for students to apply what they have learned to real-world situations.
  8. Teacher as facilitator: The teacher plays a supportive role, helping students to explore and make sense of the problem-solving process, rather than delivering information.
Problem Centered Design of Curriculum

Learner Centered Design of Curriculum

Learner-centered design of curriculum is an educational approach that focuses on the student . This approach is based on the student-led learning, with the teacher serving as a facilitator rather than a traditional lecturer. The focus is on creating an engaging, personalized and meaningful experience for each student. The curriculum is designed to look into each student’s unique strengths, interests, and needs, and provide opportunities for students to take ownership of their learning. This approach is very helpful and effective as it leads to deeper and more effective learning, as well as increased motivation and engagement for students.

The following are some key features of a learner-centered design of curriculum:

  1. Student focused: The focus is on student and they take the ownership of the learning process which help them in greater engagement and motivation.
  2. Personalization: The curriculum is designed to meet the unique needs, strengths, and interests of each student.
  3. Active learning: The curriculum focuses on experiential learning, encouraging students to be actively engaged in the learning process.
  4. Collaborative learning: Opportunities are provided for students to work together, promoting teamwork, communication skills, and peer-to-peer learning.
  5. Assessment for learning: Assessment is integrated into the curriculum, with a focus on formative assessment which provides feedback to support student learning and help them to improve.
  6. Technology integration: The use of technology is encouraged to support and enhance learning experiences, making the curriculum more accessible and flexible.
  7. Teacher as facilitator: The teacher’s role is to facilitate and guide student learning, rather than just providing information.
  8. Relevance and real-world connections: The curriculum is designed to be relevant and connected to real-world experiences and situations, increasing its relevance and meaningfulness for students.
Learner Centered Design – Curriculum Design Model of Curriculum